List of sovereign states

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The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

Membership within the United Nations system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states,[1] 2 observer states, and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (191 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (15 states, out of which there are 5 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states).

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

List of states[edit]

Common and formal namesMembership within the UN System[a]Sovereignty dispute[b]Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[d]
A AAAA AAAA AAA
ZZZUN member states and observer statesA AAAZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → AbkhaziaA UN member stateA None
 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of AfghanistanA UN member stateA None
 Albania – Republic of AlbaniaA UN member stateA None
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaA UN member stateA None
 Andorra – Principality of AndorraA UN member stateA NoneAndorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[2] who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
 Angola – Republic of AngolaA UN member stateA None
 Antigua and BarbudaA UN member stateA NoneAntigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[e] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[f]
 Argentina – Argentine Republic[g]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h] Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city.
 Armenia – Republic of ArmeniaA UN member stateA NoneNot recognized by Pakistan.[4][5][6]

See Armenia–Pakistan relations and Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

ZZZArtsakh → ArtsakhA UN member stateA None
 Australia – Commonwealth of AustraliaA UN member stateA NoneAustralia is a Commonwealth realm[e] and a federation of six states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
 Austria – Republic of AustriaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the European Union.[c] Austria is a federation of nine states (Bundesländer).
 Azerbaijan – Republic of AzerbaijanA UN member stateA NoneAzerbaijan contains two autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[f] The Republic of Artsakh, a de facto state, has been established in the latter.
 Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas[8]A UN member stateA NoneThe Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Bahrain – Kingdom of BahrainA UN member stateA None
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of BangladeshA UN member stateA None
 BarbadosA UN member stateA NoneBarbados is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Belarus – Republic of BelarusA UN member stateA NoneBelarus forms the Union State jointly with Russia.
 Belgium – Kingdom of BelgiumA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
 BelizeA UN member stateA NoneBelize is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Benin – Republic of BeninA UN member stateA None
 Bhutan – Kingdom of BhutanA UN member stateA None
 Bolivia – Plurinational State of BoliviaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h]
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaA UN member stateA NoneBosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent units:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative unit.[9]

 Botswana – Republic of BotswanaA UN member stateA None
 Brazil – Federative Republic of BrazilA UN member stateA NoneMember of UNASUL.[h] Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
 Brunei – Nation of Brunei, the Abode of PeaceA UN member stateA None
 Bulgaria – Republic of BulgariaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Burkina FasoA UN member stateA None
Burma → MyanmarA UN member stateA None
 Burundi – Republic of BurundiA UN member stateA None
 Cambodia – Kingdom of CambodiaA UN member stateA None
 Cameroon – Republic of CameroonA UN member stateA None
 Canada[i]A UN member stateA NoneCanada is a Commonwealth realm[e] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories.
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde[j]A UN member stateA None
 Central African RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Chad – Republic of ChadA UN member stateA None
 Chile – Republic of ChileA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h] Chile has two "special territories" in the Valparaíso Region: Easter Island and Juan Fernández Islands
 China – People's Republic of China[k]A UN member statePartially unrecognized. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainThe People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions:[f]

Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China claims, but does not control Taiwan, which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) that claims all of China as its territory.[l]

China is not recognised by 19 UN member states and the Holy See, which, with the exception of Bhutan, recognise Taiwan instead.[m]

China controls part of the territory of Kashmir, which is disputed by India and Pakistan.

China, Republic of → TaiwanA UN member stateA None
 Colombia – Republic of ColombiaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h]
 Comoros – Union of the ComorosA UN member stateA NoneComoros is a federation of 3 islands.[n]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the[o]A UN member stateA None
 Congo, Republic of the[p]A UN member stateA None
ZZZCook Islands → Cook IslandsA UN member stateA None
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa RicaA UN member stateA None
Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory CoastA UN member stateA None
 Croatia – Republic of CroatiaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Cuba – Republic of CubaA UN member stateA None
 Cyprus – Republic of CyprusA UN member stateNot recognized by Turkey[13]Member of the EU.[c] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".[14]
 Czech Republic[q]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, NorthA UN member stateA None
Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of theA UN member stateA None
 Denmark – Kingdom of DenmarkA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of Denmark includes 2 self-governing territories:

The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom. The designation "Denmark" can refer either to continental Denmark or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.[15][16] Also see Greenland Treaty.

 Djibouti – Republic of DjiboutiA UN member stateA None
 Dominica – Commonwealth of DominicaA UN member stateA None
 Dominican RepublicA UN member stateA None
 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[r]A UN member stateA None
 Ecuador – Republic of EcuadorA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h]
 Egypt – Arab Republic of EgyptA UN member stateA None
 El Salvador – Republic of El SalvadorA UN member stateA None
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial GuineaA UN member stateA None
 Eritrea – State of EritreaA UN member stateA None
 Estonia – Republic of EstoniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Eswatini – Kingdom of Eswatini[s]A UN member stateA None
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaA UN member stateA NoneEthiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
 Fiji – Republic of FijiA UN member stateA NoneFiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[f][17][18]
 Finland – Republic of FinlandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
  •  Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.[f][t]
 France – French RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] France contains five overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
 Gabon – Gabonese RepublicA UN member stateA None
Gambia  Gambia, The – Republic of The Gambia[19]A UN member stateA None
 GeorgiaA UN member stateA NoneGeorgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia.[f] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 Germany – Federal Republic of GermanyA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).
 Ghana – Republic of GhanaA UN member stateA None
 Greece – Hellenic RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[20]
 GrenadaA UN member stateA NoneGrenada is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Guatemala – Republic of GuatemalaA UN member stateA None
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea[u]A UN member stateA None
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-BissauA UN member stateA None
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of GuyanaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h]
 Haiti – Republic of HaitiA UN member stateA None
Holy See → Vatican CityA UN member stateA None
 Honduras – Republic of HondurasA UN member stateA None
 HungaryA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Iceland[v]A UN member stateA None
 India – Republic of IndiaA UN member stateA NoneIndia is a federation of 29 states and seven union territories. India claims the entire territory of Kashmir as one of its states, but only exercises control over part of it, while the rest is controlled by the People's Republic of China and Pakistan.
 Indonesia – Republic of IndonesiaA UN member stateA NoneIndonesia has five provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.[f]
 Iran – Islamic Republic of IranA UN member stateA None
 Iraq – Republic of IraqA UN member stateA NoneIraq is a federation[n][24] of 19 governorates, five of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[f]
 Ireland[w]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Israel – State of IsraelA UN member statePartially unrecognizedIsrael exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem,[26] an annexation not recognised by the international community.[27] Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law.

[28][29][30][31][32]Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) nor by the SADR.

 Italy – Italian RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Italy has 5 autonomous regions,[f] with varying levels of autonomy from the central government of Italy, and known officially as "special status regions":
 Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[x]A UN member stateA None
 JamaicaA UN member stateA NoneJamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 JapanA UN member stateA None
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of JordanA UN member stateA None
 Kazakhstan – Republic of KazakhstanA UN member stateA None
 Kenya – Republic of KenyaA UN member stateA None
 Kiribati – Republic of KiribatiA UN member stateA None
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of KoreaA UN member stateB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainNorth Korea is not recognised by three UN members: France, Japan and South Korea.[y]
 Korea, South – Republic of KoreaA UN member stateB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainSouth Korea has 1 autonomous region:[f]

South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[y]

ZZZKosovo → KosovoA UN member stateA None
 Kuwait – State of KuwaitA UN member stateA None
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Laos – Lao People's Democratic RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Latvia – Republic of LatviaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Lebanon – Lebanese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Lesotho – Kingdom of LesothoA UN member stateA None
 Liberia – Republic of LiberiaA UN member stateA None
 LibyaA UN member stateA None
 Liechtenstein – Principality of LiechtensteinA UN member stateA None
 Lithuania – Republic of LithuaniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of LuxembourgA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Macedonia – Republic of MacedoniaA UN member stateA NoneBecause of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".[35]
 Madagascar – Republic of MadagascarA UN member stateA None
 Malawi – Republic of MalawiA UN member stateA None
 MalaysiaA UN member stateA NoneMalaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
 Maldives – Republic of MaldivesA UN member stateA None
 Mali – Republic of MaliA UN member stateA None
 Malta – Republic of MaltaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall IslandsA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of MauritaniaA UN member stateA None
 Mauritius – Republic of MauritiusA UN member stateA NoneMauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[f]
 Mexico – United Mexican StatesA UN member stateA NoneMexico is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city.
 Micronesia – Federated States of MicronesiaA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
 Moldova – Republic of MoldovaA UN member stateA NoneMoldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
 Monaco – Principality of MonacoA UN member stateA None
 MongoliaA UN member stateA None
 MontenegroA UN member stateA None
 Morocco – Kingdom of MoroccoA UN member stateA NoneMorocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
 Mozambique – Republic of MozambiqueA UN member stateA None
 Myanmar – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[z]A UN member stateA None
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → ArtsakhA UN member stateA None
 Namibia – Republic of NamibiaA UN member stateA None
 Nauru – Republic of NauruA UN member stateA None
   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of NepalA UN member stateA NoneNepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
 Netherlands – Kingdom of the NetherlandsA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four areas with substantial autonomy:

The continental part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three other territories (Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of the continental Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to the continental Netherlands or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

 New ZealandA UN member stateA NoneNew Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[e] and has the dependent territories of:

New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 49 and 18 UN members respectively.[36][37][38] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[39] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

 Nicaragua – Republic of NicaraguaA UN member stateA NoneNicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[f]
 Niger – Republic of NigerA UN member stateA None
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of NigeriaA UN member stateA NoneNigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
ZZZNiue → NiueA UN member stateA None
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → Northern CyprusA UN member stateA None
North Korea → Korea, NorthA UN member stateA None
 Norway – Kingdom of NorwayA UN member stateA None

Norway has the dependent territories of:

 Oman – Sultanate of OmanA UN member stateA None
 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of PakistanA UN member stateA NonePakistan is a federation of four provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes the entire territory of Kashmir with India, and part of it with the People's Republic of China. It exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it,[40][41] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[42][43] The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[aa]

Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government.[44][45][46] These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfill the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan.[45][47][48]

 Palau – Republic of PalauA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Palestine – State of PalestineA UN observer state; member of 1 UN specialized agencyPartially unrecognized. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainThe declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 137 states.[49] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on much of the territory that it proclaimed.[50] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[51] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[52] and an observer state in the UN.
 Panama – Republic of PanamaA UN member stateA None
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New GuineaA UN member stateA NonePapua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[e] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[f]
 Paraguay – Republic of ParaguayA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h]
 Peru – Republic of PeruA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h]
 Philippines – Republic of the PhilippinesA UN member stateA NoneThe Philippines contains one autonomous region, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[f]
 Poland – Republic of PolandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Portugal – Portuguese RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[f]
Pridnestrovie → TransnistriaA UN member stateA None
 Qatar – State of QatarA UN member stateA None
Republic of Korea → Korea, SouthA UN member stateA None
Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of theA UN member stateA None
 RomaniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Russia – Russian FederationA UN member stateA NoneRussia is officially a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[f] Russia also forms the Union State jointly with Belarus.
 Rwanda – Republic of RwandaA UN member stateA None
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and NevisA UN member stateA NoneSaint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[e] and is a federation[n] of two islands, St. Kitts and Nevis.
 Saint LuciaA UN member stateA NoneSaint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesA UN member stateA NoneSaint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Samoa – Independent State of SamoaA UN member stateA None
 San Marino – Republic of San MarinoA UN member stateA None
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and PríncipeA UN member stateA NoneSão Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[f]
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaA UN member stateA None
 Senegal – Republic of SenegalA UN member stateA None
 Serbia – Republic of SerbiaA UN member stateA NoneSerbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[f] The latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
 Seychelles – Republic of SeychellesA UN member stateA None
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra LeoneA UN member stateA None
 Singapore – Republic of SingaporeA UN member stateA None
 Slovakia – Slovak RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Slovenia – Republic of SloveniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
 Solomon IslandsA UN member stateA NoneThe Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Somalia – Federal Republic of SomaliaA UN member stateA NoneSomalia has two self-declared autonomous regions: Puntland and Galmudug, while the territory of Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
ZZZSomaliland → SomalilandA UN member stateA None
 South Africa – Republic of South AfricaA UN member stateA None
South Korea → Korea, SouthA UN member stateA None
ZZZSouth Ossetia → South OssetiaA UN member stateA None
 South Sudan – Republic of South SudanA UN member stateA NoneSouth Sudan is a federation of 28 states.
 Spain – Kingdom of SpainA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 special autonomous cities.[f]
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka[ab]A UN member stateA None
 Sudan – Republic of the SudanA UN member stateA NoneSudan is a federation of 18 states. Sudan claims the Abyei Area, which is currently under UN protection and governed by South Sudan.[53][54]
ZZZSudan, South → South SudanA UN member stateA None
 Suriname – Republic of SurinameA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h]
Swaziland → EswatiniA UN member stateA None
 Sweden – Kingdom of SwedenA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c]
  Switzerland – Swiss ConfederationA UN member stateA NoneSwitzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
 Syria – Syrian Arab RepublicA UN member stateA NoneThe Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.

Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava.

ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → TaiwanA UN member stateA None
 Tajikistan – Republic of TajikistanA UN member stateA NoneTajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[f]
 Tanzania – United Republic of TanzaniaA UN member stateA NoneTanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[f]
 Thailand – Kingdom of ThailandA UN member stateA None
The Bahamas → Bahamas, TheA UN member stateA None
The Gambia → Gambia, TheA UN member stateA None
Timor-Leste → East TimorA UN member stateA None
 Togo – Togolese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Tonga – Kingdom of TongaA UN member stateA None
ZZZTransnistria → TransnistriaA UN member stateA None
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and TobagoA UN member stateA NoneTrinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[f]
 Tunisia – Tunisian RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Turkey – Republic of TurkeyA UN member stateA None
 TurkmenistanA UN member stateA None
 TuvaluA UN member stateA NoneTuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Uganda – Republic of UgandaA UN member stateA None
 UkraineA UN member stateA NoneUkraine contains an autonomous republic, Crimea. In 2014 Russia annexed the region along with Sevastopol turning them in one of its federal subjects as Republic of Crimea and city of Sevastopol.
 United Arab EmiratesA UN member stateA NoneThe United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[c] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[e] consisting of four constituent countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

 United States – United States of AmericaA UN member stateA NoneThe United States is a federation of 50 states and 1 federal district with shared sovereignty. The Federal government of the United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

It also has sovereignty over the following incorporated territories:

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

It also disputes sovereignty over the following territories:

 Uruguay – Oriental Republic of UruguayA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h]
 Uzbekistan – Republic of UzbekistanA UN member stateA NoneUzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[f]
 Vanuatu – Republic of VanuatuA UN member stateA None
  Vatican City – Vatican City StateA UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEAA NoneAdministered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 183 states – 180 UN member states, one UN observer state (Palestine), the Cook Islands and the Republic of China (Taiwan).[55] The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[51] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of VenezuelaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the UNASUL.[h] Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of VietnamA UN member stateA None
 Yemen – Republic of YemenA UN member stateA None
 Zambia – Republic of ZambiaA UN member stateA None
 Zimbabwe – Republic of ZimbabweA UN member stateA None
ZZZUN member states and observer statesA ZZZZZZ
ZZZABB
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓D AAAZZZ
 Abkhazia – Republic of AbkhaziaD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainRecognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Artsakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[56] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Artsakh – Republic of Artsakh[ac]D No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainA de facto independent state,[57][58][59] recognized only by Abkhazia,[60] South Ossetia[60] and Transnistria.[60][61] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[62]
 Cook IslandsD Member of eight UN specialized agenciesA None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with 52 states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[39] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Kosovo – Republic of KosovoD Member of two UN specialized agenciesB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainPursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999.[63] Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 113 UN member states and the Republic of China. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 NiueD Member of five UN specialized agenciesA None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue maintains diplomatic relations with 20 states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[39] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainRecognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[64]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainRecognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 38 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian–African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian–African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Somaliland – Republic of SomalilandD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainA de facto independent state,[57][65][66][67][68] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[69]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia–the State of AlaniaD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainA de facto independent state,[70] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[71]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[k]DFormer UN member (as Republic of China, 1945–1971)
Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei"
B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainA state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China (ROC) controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[ad] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[72] The ROC is recognised by 16 UN member states and the Holy See as of 21 August 2018. All these states do not recognise the PRC either. Additionally, one UN member (Bhutan) has refrained from recognising either the ROC or the PRC.

The territory of the ROC is claimed in whole by the PRC.[l] The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The ROC was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council. See China and the United Nations.

 Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian RepublicD No membershipB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by SpainA de facto independent state,[57] recognised only by Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia.[56] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit.[73]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑D ZZZZZZ
ZZZZZZZZZZZZ
Legend "Membership within the UN System" column
  UN Member states
  UN Observer states
  Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
  No membership in the UN System
Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
  Undisputed sovereignty
  Sovereignty disputed

Criteria for inclusion[edit]

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood, which was codified by the Montevideo Convention of 1933. The Convention defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states" so long as it was not "obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure".[74][improper synthesis?]

Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

  • (a) consider themselves sovereign (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and are often regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood, or
  • (b) are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member state

Note that in some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed. Unique political entities which fail to meet the classification of a sovereign state are considered proto-states.[75][76]

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:[77][ae]

  • 203 states recognised by at least one UN member state
  • Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Artsakh, Transnistria
  • One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: Somaliland

The table includes bullets representing entities which are either not sovereign states or have a close association to another sovereign state. It also includes subnational areas where the sovereignty of the titular state is limited by an international agreement. Taken together, these include:

  • States in a free association relationship to another state
  • Two entities controlled by Pakistan which are neither sovereign states, dependent territories, or part of another state: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan
  • Dependent territories of another state, as well as areas that exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories according to the dependent territory page
  • Subnational entities created by international agreements

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[1] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  2. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 28 member states.[7]
  4. ^ Information is included on:
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.[3]
  7. ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The member states of the Union of South American Nations have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the UNASUL, which is an example of supranational union. The UNASUL has 12 member states.[10]
  9. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  10. ^ The government of Cape Verde uses "Cabo Verde" as the English translation since 2013[11]
  11. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  12. ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  13. ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of China.
  14. ^ a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.[12]
  15. ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  16. ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  17. ^ A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic
  18. ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  19. ^ Formerly referred to as the Kingdom of Swaziland, its official name until 2018.
  20. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  21. ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  22. ^ While sometimes referred to as the "Republic of Iceland"[21][22] and sometimes its counterpart Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, the official name of the country is simply Iceland.[23] One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland, which in Icelandic is Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland", but note that "republic" is not capitalized.
  23. ^ "Ireland" is the official name in English. "Republic of Ireland" (the official description in English) and "Éire" (the official name in Irish) have sometimes been used unofficially to distinguish the state from the larger island of Ireland; this is officially deprecated.[25] See names of the Irish state.
  24. ^ The government of Ivory Coast uses "Côte d'Ivoire" as the English translation
  25. ^ a b Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.[33]
  26. ^ The country's official name of Myanmar, adopted in 1989, has been mixed and controversial, with the former name Burma sometimes being used. See Names of Myanmar.
  27. ^ Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  28. ^ Formerly known as Ceylon until 1972.
  29. ^ Formerly known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, its official name from 1991 to 2017
  30. ^ The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  31. ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is not included, as despite being a sovereign entity it lacks territory and does not claim statehood. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

References[edit]

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  50. ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
  51. ^ a b "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
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  58. ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9.
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  75. ^ Hahn, Gordon (2002). Russia's Revolution from Above, 1985–2000: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 527. ISBN 978-0765800497.
  76. ^ Griffiths, Ryan (2016). Age of Secession: The International and Domestic Determinants of State Birth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 85, 213–242. ISBN 978-1107161627.
  77. ^ The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

Bibliography[edit]