German submarine U-280
|Ordered:||5 June 1941|
|Builder:||Bremer Vulkan, Bremen-Vegesack|
|Laid down:||30 April 1942|
|Launched:||4 January 1943|
|Commissioned:||13 February 1943|
|Fate:||Sunk, 16 November 1943|
|Class and type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 40–56 enlisted|
|Operations:||one patrol: 12 October – 16 November 1943|
The submarine was laid down on 30 April 1942 at the Bremer Vulkan yard at Bremen-Vegesack, launched on 4 January 1943, and commissioned on 13 February 1943 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Walter Hungershausen.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-280 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-280 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and two twin 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
On 12 October 1943 U-280 sailed from Kiel on her first and only war patrol. On 16 November she was attacked by a British Liberator aircraft of No. 86 Squadron RAF near Convoy HX-265, in position Coordinates: , south-west of Iceland. The first attack missed and the aircraft was hit by flak, knocking out one engine. However the bomber attacked again, sinking U-280 with depth charges. The Liberator safely returned to base on three engines.
U-280 operated with the following Wolfpacks during her career:
- Körner (30 October - 2 November 1943)
- Tirpitz 3 (2–8 November 1943)
- Eisenhart 3 (9–15 November 1943)
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-280". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol of U-boat U-280 from 12 October 1943 to 16 November 1943". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
- Gröner 1991, pp. 43-46.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.