Anglo-Portuguese Army

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Anglo-Portuguese Army
Exército Anglo-Luso
Fuga de Soult da cidade do Porto.jpg
British and Portuguese regiments, side by side, at the Second Battle of Porto.
Active22 April 1809
Disbanded1814
CountryUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
Kingdom of Portugal
AllegianceGeorge III of the United Kingdom
John VI of Portugal
Size53,000 British
3,000 Hanoverians of the KGL
35,000 Portuguese Regulars
[1]
Garrison/HQLisbon, Portugal
Engagements
Commanders
Commander-in-chiefArthur Wellesley
Notable
commanders
Brent Spencer, Carlos Frederico Lecor, Luís do Rego Barreto, Henry Clinton, James Leith, John Hope, Lowry Cole, Robert Craufurd, Rowland Hill, Thomas Picton, William Beresford

The Anglo-Portuguese Army was the combined British and Portuguese army that participated in the Peninsular War, under the command of Arthur Wellesley. The Army is also referred to as the British-Portuguese Army and, in Portuguese, as the Exército Anglo-Luso or the Exército Anglo-Português.

The Anglo-Portuguese Army was established with the British Army deployed to the Iberian Peninsula under the command of General Arthur Wellesley, and the Portuguese Army rebuilt under the leadership of British General William Beresford and the Portuguese War Secretary Miguel Pereira Forjaz. The new Portuguese battalions were supplied with British equipment, trained to British standards and thoroughly re-organised. Incompetent or corrupt officers were cashiered and appropriate replacements were appointed or promoted from amongst promising Non-commissioned officers.

On 22 April 1809, Wellesley became Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in the Peninsula, replacing General Cradock, whose assessment of the military situation the British government found too pessimistic.[2] At the same time he was appointed by the Portuguese Government as Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army. He then came to have the two armies under his command, transforming them into a single integrated army.

The Army was organised into divisions, most of them including mixed British-Portuguese units. Usually, each one had two British and one Portuguese brigades. In the elite Light Division, the brigades themselves were mixed, each including two British light infantry and one Portuguese Caçadores battalions.

Order of battle[edit]

The following tables show the order of battle and commanders of the Anglo-Portuguese Army at various stages in the Peninsular War.

July 1809[3]September 1810[4]May 1811[5]September 1811
Commander in ChiefLt Gen Sir Arthur WellesleyLt Gen Viscount WellingtonLt Gen Viscount WellingtonLt Gen the Earl of Wellington
Corps Commanders--Maj Gen Brent Spencer[6]

Marshal William Carr Beresford[7]

Maj Gen Rowland Hill[8]

Lt Gen Sir Thomas Graham[9]

CavalryLt Gen William Payne-[10]Maj Gen Stapleton Cotton

Maj Gen Sir William Erskine

Lt Gen Sir Stapleton Cotton
1st DivisionMaj Gen John Coape SherbrookeMaj Gen Brent SpencerMaj Gen Miles NightingallLt Gen Sir Thomas Graham
2nd DivisionMaj Gen Rowland HillMaj Gen Rowland HillMaj Gen the Hon William StewartMaj Gen the Hon William Stewart
3rd DivisionMaj Gen Alexander Randoll MackenzieMaj Gen Thomas PictonMaj Gen Thomas PictonMaj Gen Thomas Picton
4th DivisionBrig Gen Alexander CampbellMaj Gen the Hon Lowry ColeMaj Gen the Hon Lowry ColeMaj Gen the Hon Lowry Cole
5th Division-Maj Gen James LeithMaj Gen Sir William ErskineMaj Gen James Dunlop
6th Division--Maj Gen Alexander CampbellMaj Gen Alexander Campbell
7th Division--Maj Gen William HoustonMaj Gen John Sontag
Light Division-Brig Gen Robert CraufurdBrig Gen Robert CraufurdBrig Gen Robert Craufurd
Portuguese Division-Maj Gen John HamiltonMaj Gen John HamiltonMaj Gen John Hamilton
Independent Brigades-
  • Brig Gen Denis Pack
  • Brig Gen Alexander Campbell
  • Brig Gen Francis John Coleman
July 1812[12]June 1813[13]November 1813[14]April 1814[15]
Commander in ChiefLt Gen the Earl of WellingtonLt Gen the Marquess of WellingtonField Marshal the Marquess of WellingtonField Marshal the Marquess of Wellington
Corps CommandersMaj Gen Rowland Hill[16]Lt Gen Sir Rowland Hill[17]

Lt Gen the Earl of Dalhousie[18]

Lt Gen Sir Thomas Graham[19]

Lt Gen Sir Rowland Hill[20]

Lt Gen the Hon Sir John Hope[21]

Maj Gen Charles, Baron von Alten[22]

Marshal Sir William Carr Beresford[23]

Lt Gen Sir Rowland Hill[24]

Lt Gen the Hon Sir John Hope[25]

Marshal Sir William Carr Beresford[26]

CavalryLt Gen Sir Stapleton CottonLt Gen Sir Stapleton CottonLt Gen Sir Stapleton Cotton[27]Lt Gen Sir Stapleton Cotton
1st DivisionMaj Gen Henry Frederick CampbellMaj Gen Kenneth Alexander HowardMaj Gen Kenneth Alexander HowardMaj Gen Kenneth Alexander Howard[28]
2nd DivisionMaj Gen the Hon William Stewart[29]Lt Gen the Hon William StewartLt Gen the Hon William StewartLt Gen the Hon William Stewart
3rd DivisionCol the Hon Edward PakenhamLt Gen Sir Thomas PictonMaj Gen the Hon Charles ColvilleLt Gen Sir Thomas Picton
4th DivisionMaj Gen the Hon Lowry ColeLt Gen the Hon Sir Lowry ColeLt Gen the Hon Sir Lowry ColeLt Gen the Hon Sir Lowry Cole
5th DivisionMaj Gen James LeithMaj Gen John OswaldMaj Gen Andrew HayMaj Gen Andrew Hay[30]
6th DivisionMaj Gen Henry ClintonMaj Gen Henry Clinton[31]Lt Gen Sir Henry ClintonLt Gen Sir Henry Clinton
7th DivisionMaj Gen John Hope[32]Lt Gen the Earl of DalhousieMaj Gen Carlos LecorMaj Gen George Townshend Walker[33]
Light DivisionMaj Gen Charles, Baron von AltenMaj Gen Charles, Baron von AltenMaj Gen Charles, Baron von AltenMaj Gen Charles, Baron von Alten
Portuguese DivisionMaj Gen John Hamilton[34]Maj Gen Francisco da SilveiraLt Gen Sir John HamiltonMaj Gen Carlos Lecor
Independent Brigades
  • Brig Gen Denis Pack
  • Brig Gen Thomas Bradford
  • Maj Gen Lord Aylmer
  • Brig Gen John Wilson
  • Maj Gen Thomas Bradford
  • Maj Gen Lord Aylmer
  • Maj Gen Alexander Campbell
  • Maj Gen Thomas Bradford

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Portuguese Army of the Napoleonic Wars, By Rene Chartrand, Bill Younghusband, pg16
  2. ^ Chartrand, Rene (2012). Oldest Allies - Alcantara 1809. Osprey Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-78096-895-7.
  3. ^ Battle of Talavera de la Reina
  4. ^ Battle of Bussaco
  5. ^ Battles of Fuentes de Oñoro and Albuera
  6. ^ 1st and 3rd Divisions.
  7. ^ 2nd, 4th and Portuguese Divisions. The usual commander of this corps, Hill, was on sick leave in England at the time of Albuera.
  8. ^ 2nd and Portuguese Divisions.
  9. ^ Graham was second-in-command of the main army, not operating as a distinct corps.
  10. ^ Only 2 squadrons of the 14th Light Dragoons were present (Glover, p.375)
  11. ^ KGL Light Battalions
  12. ^ Battle of Salamanca
  13. ^ Battle of Vitoria
  14. ^ Battles of Pyrenees, Nivelle and Nive
  15. ^ Battle of Toulouse
  16. ^ 2nd and Portuguese Divisions.
  17. ^ 2nd and Portuguese Divisions.
  18. ^ 3rd and 7th Divisions.
  19. ^ 1st and 5th Divisions.
  20. ^ 2nd, 6th and Portuguese Divisions.
  21. ^ 1st and 5th Divisions.
  22. ^ Light Division and attached Spaniards.
  23. ^ 3rd, 4th and 7th Divisions.
  24. ^ 2nd and Portuguese Divisions.
  25. ^ 1st and 5th Divisions.
  26. ^ 4th and 6th Divisions.
  27. ^ Most of the cavalry was quartered in the rear during the battles in the Pyrenees.
  28. ^ Not present at Toulouse, besieging Bayonne.
  29. ^ Not present at Salamanca
  30. ^ Not present at Toulouse, besieging Bayonne.
  31. ^ Not present at Vitoria
  32. ^ Not to be confused with Lt Gen John Hope who commanded a corps in 1813
  33. ^ Not present at Toulouse, occupying Bordeaux.
  34. ^ Not present at Salamanca

Bibliography[edit]